The Parthenon, devoted by the Athenians to Athena Parthenos, the patron of these town, is considered the most creation that is magnificent of democracy at the height of its power. It’s also the monument that is best regarding the Acropolis in terms of both conception and execution. Built between 447 and 438 BC, as part of the greater building that is periklean, this alleged Periklean Parthenon (Parthenon III) replaced a youthful marble temple (Parthenon II), begun following the success at the battle of Marathon at about 490 BC and damaged by the Persians in 480 BC. This temple had replaced ab muscles Parthenon that is very first we) of c. 570 BC. The Periklean Parthenon was designed by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates, although the sculptor Pheidias supervised the building that is whole and conceived the temple’s sculptural design and chryselephantine statue of Athena.
The Parthenon is a peripteral that is dual temple with a few unique and innovative architectural features. The temple proper is divided in to pronaos, cella and opisthodomos, with a space that is split the west end, and is surrounded by a pteron with eight columns for each regarding the short edges and seventeen columns regarding the long ones. The columns had the width that is exact same those of Parthenon II, to make certain that usage was manufactured from the material prepared for this, even though the brand new temple was much broader than its predecessor. The interior demonstrates an approach that is revolutionary both new and old elements: in the cella a double pi-shaped colonnade established a background for the silver and ivory statue of Athena Parthenos, which showed the goddess in complete armour holding Nike (success) to the Athenians in her right hand. The western room, where in actuality the town’s treasures had been held, had four columns which can be ionic. The two-sloped roof that is wooden marble tiles, marble palmette-shaped false antefixes over the edge of its long edges and false spouts in the form of lion heads at the corners. Marble statues adorned the corners associated with pediments and big, ornate palmettes their apex. The pediments were embellished with sculptural compositions inspired from the complete life associated with the goddess Athena. The pediment that is east the birth of the goddess, whom sprang through the mind of her daddy, Zeus, before an assembly of this Olympian gods, even though the west pediment showed Athena and Poseidon disputing for the possession regarding the city of Athens before the gods, heroes and mythical kings of Attica. Ninety-two metopes alternating with triglyphs had been put above the epistyle of the colonnade that is external underneath the architrave. All of them were adorned with reliefs, the first sculptures of the Parthenon. Their themes were derived from famous battles: the Gigantomachy had been depicted in the eastern part, the Trojan War regarding the north side, the Amazonomachy regarding the western side plus the Centauromachy regarding the side that is southern. The frieze, a feature regarding the Ionic purchase, brilliantly added to this Doric temple over the the top of cella, pronaos and opisthodomos, depicted the splendid procession of this Panathinaia, the festival that is best of Athens in honour of Athena.